Is every leaf of salad you eat visible on your figure, while a friend with a true Czech diet is able to jump directly after dinner onto the fashion catwalk? This is a result of genes. But this does not mean you have to accuse them of what you look like and stop trying.

I like the legs of the model Karolina Kurková. The reason is mainly that I myself have completely different ones: massive, columnar, muscular, with wide calves - because of which I have not been buying skinny jeans for years. I do sports, I exercise, and I eat quite healthily, and my legs are stronger, but all in all they don't change very much. Could they? Senior consultant Monika Golková from the Anti-Aging Clinic in Prague says that they could, but only partially. It will, however, entail a great deal of work and self-denial and unfortunately, I still will never achieve a result similar to that of Karolína Kurková. The rules of genetics are different. "Our genetic predisposition influences the appearance of our figure up to 70 percent," the doctor says, and continues: "We can inherit our figure from both our mother and father, even if we are of the opposite sex. If one of them has stronger thighs and calves and generally more muscular legs, there is more than a 50% likelihood that our figure will be similar. There is still plenty of room to influence your figure, especially by lifestyle, specifically diet and a strong will." Genes not only affect the shape of the figure, but also body weight (we will write further about this later), food processing and thus the distribution of body fat. Genes are a specific work unit of our DNA that we inherit from our parents or grandparents. From 99%, our genes are essentially identical across the human population. Nevertheless the remaining one percent is crucial - it's what distinguishes us from all other human beings. And not just regarding the shape of our legs. "Our human genome is already mapped and contains about 25,000 genes that affect our lives," the expert says. However, not only the genes themselves, but also the external environment factors that we come into contact with affect us. When there is an error in a gene - a mutation - disease occurs such as obesity, but also a tumor. 





... is probably the most common defense of all overweight people who fail to lose weight. Although - as is clear from the first paragraph - genetics plays a significant role, in most people these words are just an evasion. Genetically-induced obesity, the so-called “oligogenic obesity”, accounts for about 4-5% of people in the population. The reason why this obesity occurs is a greater amount of damaged genes and also the interplay of other circumstances, such as overeating and lack of movement or some other disease. Most overweight people suffer from polygenic obesity, whose development is mainly caused by environmental factors and themselves - namely improper diet composition, lack of movement and poor eating habits. Although genes provide us with the "equipment" for this type of obesity, it is really up to us as to what we do with them. It's as if somebody would give you a lot of money and you should expend it in a certain way. You can behave responsibly, invest and save, or irresponsibly, so that in a few hours you may end up with nothing. Let's look at this more specifically. In genetic predisposition, for example, you have more frequent absorption of fat directly from the intestines than other people. Or another has carbohydrate management. Possibly another has the need to move. Some of us do not need to do sports regularly to burn a sufficient amount of carbohydrates to maintain a slim figure. Others, on the other hand, have to move at least three times a week to keep the figure in line. The positive thing is that all this can now be determined with great accuracy by means of genetic tests. According to their results, you can arrange your life, thereby eating and moving so that the "worse" genes harm you as little as possible. In other words: obesity in the genes exists, but it means that you can be fat - not that you have to be. It works, of course also in the opposite direction. Genetic predispositions for slimness doesn’t automatically mean that you can stuff yourself without remorse with anything - and without consequences. For most people, sooner or later the consequences will come. In addition, the figure and pounds or kilograms are still just one side of the thing. What about health? 



Whatever you have in your genes, if you want to be healthy, you will have to put in the effort. If you are inclined to obesity, efforts will have to be somewhat greater and, most importantly, permanent. Besides, you don't do this just for yourself but for your descendants. "The genes we get as our heritage are unchangeable. But parents who with the help of a healthy lifestyle significantly adjust their weight, usually transfer their habits to their children," Monika Golková says. This means, among other things, that for instance trying to lose weight already before becoming pregnant is not at all out of the question. You cannot of course transcribe genetics, but it's not just about that. “We are not influenced only by genetics, but for instance by the so-called ‘microbiome’ - the bacteria which live in accordance with us. Their number is about 300 billion. By slimming down, changing eating habits and improving living habits, the composition of this bacteria is modified which then positively influences not only us but also our offspring," the expert says. In her lab, thanks to the "Genetic Sensor of Slender Line", you get answers to all of your questions specifically for you. The genetic test has a lifetime validity.



Source: The Journal Diet 1/2015